||This article is still under construction.
Framework for OP and ED Episodes - C and S Episode Guidance
This framework describes how OP and ED episodes are identified and classified within AniDB's C and S episode types.
Refer to discussion on the AniDB Adv. User forum here for further detail.
The following rule cascade shall apply. Higher ranking rules take precedence over lower ranking rules. For example, Rule 2 will have greater precedence than Rule 4.
- Within the rules, all references to "BD" are also references to "DVD". However, when used in notes, spell out in full for all applicable instances.
- Within the rules, all references to "TV" are also references to "HDTV" and "www". However, when used in notes, spell out in full for all applicable instances.
- Spell out "Episode" and "Volume" in full; no exceptions.
- Short episodes, given their significantly compressed duration relative to standard 20+ minute episodes, are to be assessed on a case-by-case basis. This Framework may be used as a guide, but should not be applied directly to a strict standard without use of discretion.
1. Default Rule, non-OP/ED =/= C ep
- 1. Default Rule, non-OP/ED =/= C ep: In general, anything not credited as an OP/ED song is never a C ep; always add as S ep.
Rule 1.1: Missing OP/ED song credits
- 1.1. Missing OP/ED song credits: In the absence of any songs being tagged OP/ED at all, which is more often the case in pre-modern era (90s and older) TV shows, and also frequently the case for movies:
- 1.1.1. No songs credited OP/ED at all: We look through the credits and see what songs are used functionally as an OP/ED, and if they should be recognized as such. For example, absent any formally credited OP/ED, a song credited "theme song" but used as an OP/ED shall be considered an OP/ED.
- 1.1.2. Fully credited OP/ED: In the modern era, Japan (thankfully) consistently remembers to explicitly label songs as OP and ED, at least for TV shows. In such an environment, any songs not credited as OP/ED are never considered as OP/ED and are therefore not C eps, unless an ad hoc exception for that specific case applies. To legislate all the possible exceptions is insanity; professional judgement should be used.
- 1.1.3. Partially complete credits for OP/ED: Where the anime credits for OP/ED songs are partially complete, i.e. some hybrid between nothing credited OP/ED and something credited OP/ED (e.g. OP/ED song was credited for episodes 1-6, but the credits do not provide an OP/ED song for episodes 7-12), we would need to assess on a case-by-case basis; professional judgement should be used. This is exceedingly rare.
Rule 1.2: Credits not prescriptively identifying a specific song version
- 1.2. Credits not prescriptively identifying a specific song version: The credits tell us which song to look at, and specify that the song is an OP/ED, so that is what matters. Japan cannot (always) be trusted to be more prescriptive and credit (in the video) the specific version of a song if multiple versions exist, therefore we should do the identification where we can identify/distinguish it. For example, if the same song has multiple variants (e.g. regular, acapella, falsetto, etc) and the credits do not specify which variant is used:
- 1.2.1. Identify audibly which variant is played: If we are able to identify audibly which song variant is played, we should credit that variant to the C/S ep.
- 1.2.2. Identify via external reference which variant is played: If we are able to identify via external reference (such as Anison) which song variant is played, we should credit that variant to the C/S ep.
2. Default Rule, OP/ED = C ep
- 2. Default Rule, OP/ED = C ep: Anything credited as OP/ED is a C ep, unless an exception applies.
Rule 2.1: "BD/DVD lookthrough" rule
- 2.1. "BD/DVD lookthrough" rule: If the original airing did not include an OP/ED sequence at the end of the episode, but the BD release does include one ("BD exclusive OP/ED"), and the song was credited as OP/ED, this can be added as a C ep.
Rule 2.2: Ordering of C eps (also applicable to S eps)
- 2.2. Ordering of C eps (also applicable to S eps): BD exclusive OP/ED are ordered in the listing secondary to original airing OP/ED. ALL foreign language OP/ED would occur after the original language OP/ED. If there are multiple groups of foreign language OP/ED, group them together. More specifically: all original airing OP, all BD exclusive OP, all original airing ED, all BD exclusive ED, all foreign language #1's OP, all foreign language #1's ED, all foreign language #2's OP, all foreign language #2's ED. Within each grouping of C/S eps, order by air date.
Rule 2.3: Eptitle of C eps
- 2.3. Eptitle of C eps: The default naming convention for eptitle of C eps is: Opening 1, Opening 2, Ending 1, Ending 2, etc. If there is only 1 opening and/or 1 ending, drop the numeral from the name. If there are foreign language OP/ED, pre-pend the name with the language. For example: "German Opening 1".
- 2.3.1. Major numbering: The major numbering is linked to a song. Each time a new song is introduced to the OP/ED listing, the number is incremented (1, 2, 3, 4). The numbering is counted separately for OP and ED.
- 22.214.171.124. One major number per song: If a song was previously used, and its usage returns, the number does not increment. For example, if Song A was used in ep 1 ED, then Songs B and C for eps 2-6 ED, and Song A returns in ep 7 ED, Song A is major numbered Ending 1 in both appearances.
- 126.96.36.199. Song variants are considered major versions: If a song is used multiple times, but a different variant is used each time (e.g. regular, acapella, falsetto, different singer, etc), we denote this with major numbering; each variant is treated as if it was an entirely different song. For clarity, different variant = different song ID, and, different implementation version (normal, instrumental, etc) = different variant, even though the song ID is the same.
- 2.3.2. Minor numbering to track changing video sequences: Songs are often linked to multiple OP/ED videos. The song remains the same, but the OP/ED sequence evolves as the anime progresses; for example, more characters may be added to the OP/ED as they are introduced in the main episodes. Where multiple C ep video sequences exist for the same song, we denote this with minor numbering as such: Opening 1a, Opening 1b, Opening 1c, Ending 1a, Ending 1b, Ending 1c, etc.
Rule 2.4: Episode notes for C eps
- 2.4. Episode notes for C eps: Episode notes for C eps are used to document differences in the video sequences when multiple C eps for the same song exist, due to multiple OP/ED video sequences. If a song only has 1 associated C/S ep, a note is generally not needed for this purpose.
- 2.4.1. Episode range of video: Document the episode range of the video, and specify TV vs BD/DVD ranges if they are different.
- 2.4.2. Identifying attributes of the video: Document any attributes that can help users differentiate the various video files within each song.
EXAMPLES OF 2.4.1 RANGE STATEMENTS:
Episode 1. Description for single ep range for all sources here.
Episodes 2-3. Description for two ep range here.
Episodes 3-6. Description for longer range here.
Episodes 3-6, 8. Description for multi-range here.
Where the BD contains both a censored and uncensored version of the OP/ED:
> Episodes 1-4 (TV/www) / Episodes 1-4 (BD/DVD Censored). Description here.
> Episodes 1-4 (BD/DVD Uncensored). Description here.
Episodes 7-11 (TV/www) / 7-10 (BD/DVD). Description for range with source differences here.
Episodes 7-11 (TV) / 7-9 (www) / 7-10 (BD/DVD). Description for range with source differences here.
Episode 11 (BD/DVD only). Description with source not applicable at all to some sources here.
Episodes 12, 14, 16, 18-20. Description for more complexly split range here.
Episodes 12, 14, 16, 18-20 (HDTV/www) / 12-14, 16, 18-20 (BD/DVD). Description for more complexly split range with source differences here. The description is also complex, so it spans multiple sentences.
EXAMPLES OF 2.4.2 VIDEO ATTRIBUTE STATEMENTS:
Sung with duet vocals.
Image of Hanekawa with short hair.
Kirito appears at 0:43.
Rule 2.5: "Regular OP used as Episode 1 ED" rule
- 2.5. "Regular OP used as Episode 1 ED" rule: if the OP song and video is played as the ending of episode 1, but then reverts to normal OP usage for the remainder of the season/arc, we credit the song as ED for episode 1, and as OP for episode 2 and onwards.
- 2.5.1. Both are C eps: It is still a "C episode" for both episode 1 and episode 2+, however:
- 2.5.2. No C ep for ep 1 ED: We do not create an actual C ep entry for ep 1 ED, since in practice this was an exception, and the song + video is really the ordinary OP. We create a C ep for ep 2 OP instead. However, the air date of this C episode is the air date of episode 1, since the "OP video segment" was actually first played in episode 1. This rule is a "sleight of hand" so that we don't end up having 2 C episodes for the identical segments.
- 2.5.3. Exception for Ep 1 ED with different video: We would only create a C ep for ep 1 ED in the unlikely event it has a video segment different from the regular ep 2+ OP. In this case, the ep 1 ED C ep uses the episode 1 air date, and the ep 2+ OP C ep uses the episode 2 air date.
- 188.8.131.52. It will most likely be numbered "Ending 1", since the OP song used in episode 1 ED is the first ED in the series (major numbering), and the OP song is usually only used as an ED once (no need for minor numbering). This is a non-prescriptive rule and is only stated as a suggestion; regular numbering rules still apply and can modify the numbering as appropriate.
3. Insufficient video =/= C ep
- 3. Insufficient video =/= C ep: If there is "insufficient video", including a completely black screen during the credit roll, or a single colour gradient background, it is not a C ep (and perhaps not even an S ep).
Rule 3.1: Simple graphics are still C eps
- 3.1. Simple graphics are still C eps: More specifically, for ease of use we will apply a simplifying rule: simple graphics or graphical animations on a black or coloured background, or a single static image (for example an artist's drawing of the characters), for the purposes of these rules, are "sufficient" video, and therefore shall be added as a C ep. Example #1, Example #2.
Rule 3.2: Instances of "recap and non-recap screenshots/still-images/boxed-animations" count as sufficient video
- 3.2. Instances of "recap and non-recap screenshots/still-images/boxed-animations" count as sufficient video: Refer to Rule 4.1. Example #1, example #2.
4. No opening/ending segment
- 4. No opening/ending segment: If in the opening/ending, "instead of an opening/ending segment showing up, the main body of the episode plays" (aka, "does the main episode bleed into the OP/ED?"), it is not a C ep and therefore should be added as an S ep; this is known as "no opening/ending segment" and we have tags for it: t6301 -- no opening segment and t6300 -- no ending segment.
Rule 4.1: Recap screenshots and new-content screenshots do not count as "main episode bleeding" ("deemed C episode")
- 4.1. Recap screenshots and new-content screenshots do not count as "main episode bleeding" ("deemed C episode"): Instances of "recap screenshots/still-images/boxed-animations" =/= no opening/ending segment (they are deemed not to count as "episode bleed"). Instances of "non-recap (new content) screenshots/still-images/boxed-animations" also =/= no opening/ending segment (they are deemed not to count as "episode bleed"). For both of these, it is deemed to be a C ep. The intent of this rule is to screen out only instances where the "actual" main episode bleeds into the OP/ED, making it an S ep; this rule deems that "recap screenshots/animations" and "non-recap (new content) screens" do not count as main episode content bleeding.
Rule 4.2: Split OP/ED between main ep and OP/ED sequence ("round up" rule)
- 4.2. Split OP/ED between main ep and OP/ED sequence ("round up" rule): In the case of a split opening/ending segment, where a portion is regular episode, the other portion is OP/ED sequence, and the credits roll over both halves: to simplify, we will "round up", and consider these instances the same as a full opening/ending sequence; it will be considered a C ep.
- 4.2.1. No fixed proportions when applying the "round up" rule: In terms of the proportions of the "episode" vs "OP/ED" sequence portions, there is no fixed ratio; for example, an OP/ED with 30% "episode" + 70% "OP/ED (both real and deemed OP/ED)" is rounded up, and likewise an OP/ED with 80% "episode" + 20% "OP/ED (both real OP/ED and deemed OP/ED via rules)" is also rounded up.
- 4.2.2. Split OP/ED between main ep and OP/ED sequence... with differing cuts of the same OP/ED sequence between C eps: If the same video sequence is being used by multiple C eps, but the C eps all take different cuts of that video sequence by clipping it at differing timestamps, we still round up, but we consider each cut "as its own video" and therefore each cut gets its own C episode. Illustrative example:
ED2a (normal): XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
ED2b (ep. 11): ------XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX-------
ED2c (ep. 16): ----------------------XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
DRAFT RULE - Rule 4.2.3: An OP/ED is only played in a "cut" form on TV, and a full version is released on BD, but the full version is never used as an OP/ED on the TV or the BD release
- 4.2.3.: An OP/ED is only played in a "cut" form on TV, and a full version is released on BD, but the full version is never used as an OP/ED on the TV or the BD release: Where a "full version" is released as a BD/DVD special, but it is never used in full on an episode (in either the TV or BD airing), this BD/DVD release is not a C ep; add as an S ep. Illustrative example:
ED2a (TV, ep. 11) : ------XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX------- add as C ep
ED2b (TV, ep. 12) : ----------------------XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX add as C ep
S1 (BD bonus only): XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX not used in an episode on TV or BD, therefore add as S ep
Rule 4.3: NCOP/NCED no ending segment = S ep
- 4.3. NCOP/NCED no ending segment = S ep: If this "no opening/ending segment" video is released creditless on the BD/DVD, it can be added as an S ep. The air date of the S ep shall be the same as when the regular episode originally aired.
EXAMPLES OF 4.3 S EP ENTRIES
>> Title: Episode XX Opening
>> Title: Episode XX Ending
>> Description: Included in the BD/DVD Volume X. No song.
>> Description: Included in the BD/DVD Volume X. Song Infinia is credited as insert song.
Rule 4.4: No OP/ED segment on TV release, but OP/ED segment added on BD/DVD release
- 4.4. No OP/ED segment on TV release, but OP/ED segment added on BD/DVD release:: If the original TV/www airing has no OP/ED segment, but the BD/DVD subsequently adds an OP/ED segment to the episode, create a C ep for the BD exclusive OP/ED and order accordingly as per the ordering rules.
- 4.4.1. Harmonization with the t6301 -- no opening segment and t6300 -- no ending segment tags: Apply the tags base on the original airing. The BD/DVD airing does not impact the application of tags.
Rule 4.5: OP and ED directly adjacent to each other, without any main episode content between them
- 4.5. OP and ED directly adjacent to each other, without any main episode content between them:: The segments are considered OP or ED based on the timestamp which they occupy. If the OP and ED segment are both at the start of the episode, both are considered OP. If the OP and ED segment are both at the end of the episode, both are considered ED.
- 4.5.1. Harmonization with the t6301 -- no opening segment and t6300 -- no ending segment tags: Apply the tags in the same manner. When both segments are considered OP, the "no ending segment" tag is applicable. When both segments are considered ED, the "no opening segment" tag is applicable.
5. Anime that use summary or recap type OP/ED for the majority of OP/ED
- 5. Anime that use summary or recap type OP/ED for the majority of OP/ED: If an anime, for the majority of its OP/ED segments, employs summary screenshots or summary video in lieu of a typical repeated OP/ED animation, we add these as C/S eps, but we do NOT create multiple C/S ep minor versions (i.e. Opening 1a, Opening 1b, Ending 1a, Ending 1b, etc) as a result of this.
Rule 5.1: Treat all summary OP/ED videos for the same song as "identical" videos
- 5.1. Treat all summary OP/ED videos for the same song as "identical" videos: All summary OP/ED videos for the same song are treated as "identical" videos. In the case of a split OP/ED video where a portion is summary and the remainder is the "regular OP/ED sequence" for the same song, these are also treated as "identical" videos ("rounding up" assumption). Therefore, we only create C/S eps that are differentiated by changes in OP/ED song. All the "identical" videos are added to the C/S eps based on song; optionally, at the file level a file comment can be added to specify the episode to which that C/S ep video applies.
Rule 5.2: Exception -- Rule does not apply for one-off summary episodes
- 5.2. Exception -- Rule does not apply for one-off summary episodes: For clarity, if an anime uses summary or recap type ED on a one-off basis, this rule does not apply, and a separate C/S ep should be created as per standard rules where multiple videos for the same song exist.
6. Fansub-created chopjob cuts
- 6. Fansub-created chopjob cuts: If a fansub manually cuts credited sequences, OP sequences, ED sequences, into a chopjob, these are never C eps or S eps. If they are added to the DB, it will be as a P ep.
||This rule is yet to be fully codified.
7. "Loaned" C episodes
- 7. Fansub-created chopjob cuts: This rule is yet to be fully codified.
||This rule is yet to be fully codified.
#1: SAO Ep 25 ED -- Recap Screenshots/Animations
#2: Full Moon O Sagashite Ep. 1–6 ED -- Recap Screenshots/Animations
#3: Phantasia Ep 4 ED -- Non-Recap (New Content) Screens
#4: Re:Zero Kara Hajimeru Isekai Seikatsu Ep. 2 ED -- Simple Graphics Or Graphical Animations On A Black Or Coloured Background
#5: Megalo Box -- Simple Graphics Or Graphical Animations On A Black Or Coloured Background
#6: Tenjou Hen: Utsu No Miko (1990) -- No Formally Credited OP/ED Songs
Link to https://anidb.net/a5938
Applying rule 1.1.1, we would lookthrough the credits and find the functional OP/ED songs; the anime does not formally credit any OP/ED.
#7: Nichijou -- Multiple Versions Of Song Zzz, But Credits Are Non-Sepcific
Link to https://anidb.net/a8168
Applying rule 1.2.2, while the credits only attribute Zzz as the ED song for multiple episodes, external reference Anison
clearly delineates Zzz, Zzz(Boss Nova Version), and Zzz(Acapella Version), therefore we credit the specific versions.
#8: "Things That Look Like OP/ED Should Be Treated As OP/ED"
Link to https://anidb.net/e118740
The below is addressed by rule 1.1.
>> Kabbu wrote:
>> So regardless of whether something is called "theme, insert or maybe even opening song" if it was played during what is generally understood as an ending segment, then it would be added with an ending relation.
This is very much what I'd do.
It's maybe not as clean as making it only "credited as OP/ED", but it conveys far better what C-episode are for. It also immediately catches the older stuff and takes care of the auto-titler thing that Soulweaver mentioned.
Plus it's generally pretty clear when something is meant to be an OP/ED: the regular story is interrupted for 1-1.30 minute of unrelated music video, usually with credits. Incidentally, the story not being interrupted also matches
our sense of when it should be an S-episode instead.
#9: One-Off Summary ED Vs Majority Usage Summary ED
In terms of summary/recap type ED, there are 2 distinct types of occurrences:
- Shows that do it very infrequently, such as the end of an arc, or the end of the entire show (SAO ep 25)
- Shows that do it for every single ED (Ai Tenchi Muyou, Detective Conan)
Applying rule 5.2, example #1 is added as its own C ep.
Applying rule 5 and 5.1, for example #2 we do not differentiate these videos. We only create C eps that are differentiated by changes in OP/ED song.
#10: Weird Example Of Danganronpa Ep 1 ED -- Consider This Case an Ad-Hoc, Non-Precedent Decision
- Add BD version as C ep., and use the BD date as the C ep date since that's when the BD version video first airs.
- Create an S ep for the black screen credit role, with air date of ep 1 air date. Call it "Episode 1 TV Ending" or something. Ordinarily as a black screen ED, it would fail rule 3 blocking it from C ep, so it can only be an S ep.
Soulweaver wrote: There's also another stupid case I forgot, the first episode ending of Danganronpa. The TV version had a black screen with a credits roll, the BD version had a proper ending animation – so far so good, only add a C ep for the latter. However, they also bundled the credited original ep 1 staff roll as a bonus feature on the Blu-rays for whatever reason; the unusual decision there was to add the files of that mixed in with the BD ED1 files and have them share the same C ep (with also ep 1's air date, it seems). I don't know if this was actually that good of an idea, they should probably be separate, though I don't know if the plain credit roll would be a S ep either.
We should make it simple and not create exceptions; just add the S ep for this if it fails the C ep check.