Difference between revisions of "AniDB Definition:Romanisation"

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(v0. Much to do still. Also, I don't spell check. Feel free to correct errors of any kind.)
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needs to be checked and converted from: http://www.anidb.net/forum/viewtopic.php?t=2935
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 +
The information on this page is provided as ''guidelines'' on the use of romanised Japanese (''rōmaji'') in [[AniDB:About|AniDB]]. Please be aware that this is not an exact science, there are many viable solutions to the same problem, though when submitting [[How_to_update_or_correct_existing_entries|change requests]] on romanised titles users are expected to adhere to the 'house style' of the database. When there is contention over a particular issue, this page will provide both alternatives. External links to Wikipedia are provided throughout for ideas and terms that might be unfamiliar.
 +
 
 +
== What romanised titles are for ==
 +
 
 +
*'''Primarily''', to provide a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcription_%28linguistics%29 transcription] of the Japanese title that is ''aurally recognisable'' and ''readable'' by a user with little or no knowledge of the language. In using roman script, this is obviously targeted at speakers of European languages, however as this consitutes a majority of the poulation of AniDB users, this is a fair restriction.
 +
 
 +
*''Secondary'' purposes include corresponding with other transcriptions, assisting novices in reading unfamiliar words, enabling rough pronunciation of titles, providing an alternative method of searching for a japanese title, and clarification of the reading of a particular word or phrase where it might be ambiguous.
 +
 
 +
== What romanised titles aren't for ==
 +
 
 +
*There is no requirement to be able to reconstruct the original title from romanised form. With [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_writing_system four distinct scripts], a wide range of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homophone homophones], and typographic intricacies such as [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furigana furigana] usage, this is beyond the scope of a 26 letter alphabet. In all cases the Japanese title should be presented as well, a romanised form is in no way a replacement for this.
 +
*Romanisation need not be a lossless [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transliteration transliteration] of Japanese spelling. Though less so than English, Japanese pronunciation deviates somewhat from the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoneme phonemic] spelling. As the aim is to provide an aurally recognisable transcription, it is more important to better reflect the sound than exact spelling.
 +
*Romanised titles do not need to provide a basis for correct Japanese [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collation collation] of titles. This is a technical problem that would be better handled correctly through it's own system, and would interfere with the primary purpose of the romanisation.
 +
 
 +
== Hepburn romanisation ==
 +
 
 +
=== Table of kana romanisation ===
 +
 
 +
Table below adpated from [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepburn wikipedia article on Hepburn], ''probably places this page revision under GPL or summat but that shouldn't matter much''. Obsolete kana are shown in <font color=red>red</font>.
 +
 
 +
{| border="0" cellspacing="2px" cellpadding="2px" width="100%"
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#BECFEB" valign=top align="center"
 +
!&#12354; ''a'' ア
 +
!&#12356; ''i'' イ
 +
!&#12358; ''u'' ウ
 +
!&#12360; ''e'' エ
 +
!&#12362; ''o'' オ
 +
|bgcolor="#D4D4D4"|('''''ya''''')
 +
|bgcolor="#D4D4D4"|('''''yu''''')
 +
|bgcolor="#D4D4D4"|('''''yo''''')
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="8"|
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|&#12363; ''ka'' カ
 +
|&#12365; ''ki'' キ
 +
|&#12367; ''ku'' く
 +
|&#12369; ''ke'' ケ
 +
|&#12371; ''ko'' コ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12365;&#12419; ''kya'' キャ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12365;&#12421; ''kyu'' キュ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12365;&#12423; ''kyo'' キョ
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|&#12373; ''sa'' サ
 +
|&#12375; ''shi'' シ
 +
|&#12377; ''su'' ス
 +
|&#12379; ''se'' セ
 +
|&#12381; ''so'' ソ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12375;&#12419; ''sha'' シャ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12375;&#12421; ''shu'' シュ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12375;&#12423; ''sho'' ショ
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|&#12383; ''ta'' タ
 +
|&#12385; ''chi'' チ
 +
|&#12388; ''tsu'' ツ
 +
|&#12390; ''te'' テ
 +
|&#12392; ''to'' ト
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12385;&#12419; ''cha'' チャ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12385;&#12421; ''chu'' チュ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12385;&#12423; ''cho'' チョ
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|&#12394; ''na'' ナ
 +
|&#12395; ''ni'' ニ
 +
|&#12396; ''nu'' ヌ
 +
|&#12397; ''ne'' ネ
 +
|&#12398; ''no'' ノ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12395;&#12419; ''nya'' ニャ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12395;&#12421; ''nyu'' ニュ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12395;&#12423; ''nyo'' ニョ
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|&#12399; ''ha'' ハ
 +
|&#12402; ''hi'' ヒ
 +
|&#12405; ''fu'' フ
 +
|&#12408; ''he'' ヘ
 +
|&#12411; ''ho'' ホ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12402;&#12419; ''hya'' ヒャ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12402;&#12421; ''hyu'' ヒュ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12402;&#12423; ''hyo'' ヒョ
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|&#12414; ''ma'' マ
 +
|&#12415; ''mi'' ミ
 +
|&#12416; ''mu'' ム
 +
|&#12417; ''me'' メ
 +
|&#12418; ''mo'' モ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12415;&#12419; ''mya'' ミャ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12415;&#12421; ''myu'' ミュ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12415;&#12423; ''myo'' ミョ
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|&#12420; ''ya'' ヤ
 +
|bgcolor="#E9E9E9"|
 +
|&#12422; ''yu'' ユ
 +
|bgcolor="#E9E9E9"|
 +
|&#12424; ''yo'' ヨ
 +
|bgcolor="#E9E9E9" colspan="3"|
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|&#12425; ''ra'' ラ
 +
|&#12426; ''ri'' リ
 +
|&#12427; ''ru'' ル
 +
|&#12428; ''re'' レ
 +
|&#12429; ''ro'' ロ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12426;&#12419; ''rya'' リャ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12426;&#12421; ''ryu'' リュ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12426;&#12423; ''ryo'' リョ
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|&#12431; ''wa'' ワ
 +
|<font color=red>&#12432; ''wi'' ヰ</font>
 +
|bgcolor="#E9E9E9"|
 +
|<font color=red>&#12433; ''we'' ゑ</font>
 +
|&#12434; ''wo'' ヲ
 +
|bgcolor="#E9E9E9" colspan="3"|
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|bgcolor="#E9E9E9" colspan="4"|
 +
|&#12435; ''n'' ン
 +
|bgcolor="#E9E9E9" colspan="3"|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="8"|
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|&#12364; ''ga'' ガ
 +
|&#12366; ''gi'' ギ
 +
|&#12368; ''gu'' グ
 +
|&#12370; ''ge'' ゲ
 +
|&#12372; ''go'' ゴ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12366;&#12419; ''gya'' ギャ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12366;&#12421; ''gyu'' ギュ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12366;&#12423; ''gyo'' ギョ
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|&#12374; ''za'' ザ
 +
|&#12376; ''ji'' ジ
 +
|&#12378; ''zu'' ズ
 +
|&#12380; ''ze'' ゼ
 +
|&#12382; ''zo'' ゾ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12376;&#12419; ''ja'' ジャ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12376;&#12421; ''ju'' ジュ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12376;&#12423; ''jo'' ジョ
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|&#12384; ''da'' ダ
 +
|&#12386; ''(ji)'' ヂ
 +
|&#12389; ''(zu)'' ヅ
 +
|&#12391; ''de'' デ
 +
|&#12393; ''do'' ド
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12386;&#12419; ''(ja)'' ヂャ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12386;&#12421; ''(ju)'' ヂュ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12386;&#12423; ''(jo)'' ヂョ
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|&#12400; ''ba'' バ
 +
|&#12403; ''bi'' ビ
 +
|&#12406; ''bu'' ブ
 +
|&#12409; ''be'' ベ
 +
|&#12412; ''bo'' ボ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12403;&#12419; ''bya'' ビャ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12403;&#12421; ''byu'' ビュ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12403;&#12423; ''byo'' ビョ
 +
 
 +
|-bgcolor="#E7F5DE" valign=top align="center"
 +
|&#12401; ''pa'' パ
 +
|&#12404; ''pi'' ピ
 +
|&#12407; ''pu'' プ
 +
|&#12410; ''pe'' ペ
 +
|&#12413; ''po'' ポ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12404;&#12419; ''pya'' ピャ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12404;&#12421; ''pyu'' ピュ
 +
|bgcolor="#F3F5DE"|&#12404;&#12423; ''pyo'' ピョ
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
''Possibly add modern katakana here as well''
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== Special cases ===
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==== Particle は as ''wa'' ====
 +
 
 +
Accepted.
 +
 
 +
==== Particle へ as ''e'' ====
 +
 
 +
Sometimes contested.
 +
 
 +
==== Particle を as ''o'' ====
 +
 
 +
Often contested.
 +
 
 +
==== っ when geminate consonant ====
 +
 
 +
Often contested.
 +
 
 +
==== っ when exclamation ====
 +
 
 +
Accepted?
 +
 
 +
=== Deviations from Hepburn ===
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==== Macron usage for long vowels ====
 +
 
 +
Accepted.
 +
 
 +
==== ん before labial consonants as 'm' ====
 +
 
 +
Accepted.
 +
 
 +
== Other orthography issues ==
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== Spacing ===
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== Capitalisation ===
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== Punctuation ===
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Practical guide ==
  
 
[[Category:Guidelines]] [[Category:Definitions]]
 
[[Category:Guidelines]] [[Category:Definitions]]

Revision as of 04:56, 28 July 2005

The information on this page is incomplete and may not be of much use.
If you can, please help by adding to it.

The information on this page is provided as guidelines on the use of romanised Japanese (rōmaji) in AniDB. Please be aware that this is not an exact science, there are many viable solutions to the same problem, though when submitting change requests on romanised titles users are expected to adhere to the 'house style' of the database. When there is contention over a particular issue, this page will provide both alternatives. External links to Wikipedia are provided throughout for ideas and terms that might be unfamiliar.

What romanised titles are for

  • Primarily, to provide a transcription of the Japanese title that is aurally recognisable and readable by a user with little or no knowledge of the language. In using roman script, this is obviously targeted at speakers of European languages, however as this consitutes a majority of the poulation of AniDB users, this is a fair restriction.
  • Secondary purposes include corresponding with other transcriptions, assisting novices in reading unfamiliar words, enabling rough pronunciation of titles, providing an alternative method of searching for a japanese title, and clarification of the reading of a particular word or phrase where it might be ambiguous.

What romanised titles aren't for

  • There is no requirement to be able to reconstruct the original title from romanised form. With four distinct scripts, a wide range of homophones, and typographic intricacies such as furigana usage, this is beyond the scope of a 26 letter alphabet. In all cases the Japanese title should be presented as well, a romanised form is in no way a replacement for this.
  • Romanisation need not be a lossless transliteration of Japanese spelling. Though less so than English, Japanese pronunciation deviates somewhat from the phonemic spelling. As the aim is to provide an aurally recognisable transcription, it is more important to better reflect the sound than exact spelling.
  • Romanised titles do not need to provide a basis for correct Japanese collation of titles. This is a technical problem that would be better handled correctly through it's own system, and would interfere with the primary purpose of the romanisation.

Hepburn romanisation

Table of kana romanisation

Table below adpated from wikipedia article on Hepburn, probably places this page revision under GPL or summat but that shouldn't matter much. Obsolete kana are shown in red.

a i u e o (ya) (yu) (yo)
ka ki ku ke ko きゃ kya キャ きゅ kyu キュ きょ kyo キョ
sa shi su se so しゃ sha シャ しゅ shu シュ しょ sho ショ
ta chi tsu te to ちゃ cha チャ ちゅ chu チュ ちょ cho チョ
na ni nu ne no にゃ nya ニャ にゅ nyu ニュ にょ nyo ニョ
ha hi fu he ho ひゃ hya ヒャ ひゅ hyu ヒュ ひょ hyo ヒョ
ma mi mu me mo みゃ mya ミャ みゅ myu ミュ みょ myo ミョ
ya yu yo
ra ri ru re ro りゃ rya リャ りゅ ryu リュ りょ ryo リョ
wa wi we wo
n
ga gi gu ge go ぎゃ gya ギャ ぎゅ gyu ギュ ぎょ gyo ギョ
za ji zu ze zo じゃ ja ジャ じゅ ju ジュ じょ jo ジョ
da (ji) (zu) de do ぢゃ (ja) ヂャ ぢゅ (ju) ヂュ ぢょ (jo) ヂョ
ba bi bu be bo びゃ bya ビャ びゅ byu ビュ びょ byo ビョ
pa pi pu pe po ぴゃ pya ピャ ぴゅ pyu ピュ ぴょ pyo ピョ

Possibly add modern katakana here as well


Special cases

Particle は as wa

Accepted.

Particle へ as e

Sometimes contested.

Particle を as o

Often contested.

っ when geminate consonant

Often contested.

っ when exclamation

Accepted?

Deviations from Hepburn

Macron usage for long vowels

Accepted.

ん before labial consonants as 'm'

Accepted.

Other orthography issues

Spacing

Capitalisation

Punctuation

Practical guide